Differential role of insular cortex muscarinic and NMDA receptors in one-trial appetitive taste learning

Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014 Dec:116:112-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2014.09.008. Epub 2014 Oct 6.


Our current understanding of the neurobiology of taste learning and memory has been greatly facilitated by the use of a reliable behavioural model, conditioned taste aversion (CTA). This model has revealed that the insular cortex (IC), specifically muscarinic and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in the IC, is critical for the formation of aversive taste memories. In contrast, current models of appetitive taste learning are less adequate, relying on the use of neophobic tastes (attenuation of neophobia) or on the integration of appetitive and aversive taste memories (latent inhibition of CTA). While these models have implicated IC muscarinic receptors, the involvement of NMDA receptors in the IC remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of both muscarinic and NMDA receptors in appetitive taste learning using a simple paradigm that is independent of neophobic and aversive components. First, we demonstrated that a single exposure to a novel taste, saccharin 0.1%, is sufficient to promote an appetitive taste memory as revealed by an increase in saccharin consumption during the second presentation. This increase was blocked by bilateral infusion in the IC of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine. In contrast, infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5, did not block appetitive taste learning but did abolish CTA. Therefore, common and distinct molecular substrates within the IC mediate appetitive versus aversive learning about the same taste.

Keywords: Appetitive; Insular cortex; Muscarinic receptor; NMDA receptor; Taste learning.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Avoidance Learning / drug effects*
  • Avoidance Learning / physiology
  • Cerebral Cortex / drug effects*
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Muscarinic Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Receptors, Muscarinic / metabolism*
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Saccharin / pharmacology
  • Scopolamine / pharmacology
  • Taste / physiology*
  • Valine / analogs & derivatives
  • Valine / pharmacology


  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Receptors, Muscarinic
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  • 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid
  • Scopolamine
  • Saccharin
  • Valine