Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) include ocular and cerebral lymphomas and are rare aggressive malignancies with poor prognoses. Compared with other lymphomas, they are a challenge for clinicians and scientists, for diagnosis and therapeutic progress and their prognosis remains unsatisfactory, because of the lack of molecular and biological knowledge. Indeed, several limitations of human sample present a major obstacle to the identification of the particular microenvironment of the sanctuary sites where these tumor cells grow. In addition, the generally poor overall condition and performance status of patients with PCNSL limit their participation in prospective trials. Therefore, animal models of PCNSL are essential for tumor microenvironment characterization and for antitumor response studying. In this review, we have compiled the B-and T-cell PCNSL mouse models that are used to improve our understanding of the lymphoma microenvironment, tropism and migration and to investigate novel therapeutic strategies.