Proteasome inhibition and oxidative reactions disrupt cellular homeostasis during heme stress

Cell Death Differ. 2015 Apr;22(4):597-611. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2014.154. Epub 2014 Oct 10.


Dual control of cellular heme levels by extracellular scavenger proteins and degradation by heme oxygenases is essential in diseases associated with increased heme release. During severe hemolysis or rhabdomyolysis, uncontrolled heme exposure can cause acute kidney injury and endothelial cell damage. The toxicity of heme was primarily attributed to its pro-oxidant effects; however additional mechanisms of heme toxicity have not been studied systematically. In addition to redox reactivity, heme may adversely alter cellular functions by binding to essential proteins and impairing their function. We studied inducible heme oxygenase (Hmox1)-deficient mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines as a model to systematically explore adaptive and disruptive responses that were triggered by intracellular heme levels exceeding the homeostatic range. We extensively characterized the proteome phenotype of the cellular heme stress responses by quantitative mass spectrometry of stable isotope-labeled cells that covered more than 2000 individual proteins. The most significant signals specific to heme toxicity were consistent with oxidative stress and impaired protein degradation by the proteasome. This ultimately led to an activation of the response to unfolded proteins. These observations were explained mechanistically by demonstrating binding of heme to the proteasome that was linked to impaired proteasome function. Oxidative heme reactions and proteasome inhibition could be differentiated as synergistic activities of the porphyrin. Based on the present data a novel model of cellular heme toxicity is proposed, whereby proteasome inhibition by heme sustains a cycle of oxidative stress, protein modification, accumulation of damaged proteins and cell death.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Bortezomib / pharmacology
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Circular Dichroism
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • Heme / pharmacology*
  • Heme Oxygenase-1 / genetics
  • Heme Oxygenase-1 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / chemistry
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism*
  • Proteasome Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Protein Binding
  • Sequestosome-1 Protein
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
  • Ubiquitin / metabolism


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Proteasome Inhibitors
  • Sequestosome-1 Protein
  • Sqstm1 protein, mouse
  • Ubiquitin
  • Heme
  • Bortezomib
  • Heme Oxygenase-1
  • Hmox1 protein, mouse
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex