Women are designed to deliver vaginally and not by cesarean section: an obstetrician's view

Neonatology. 2015;107(1):8-13. doi: 10.1159/000365164. Epub 2014 Oct 4.


Worldwide, there is a rapid increase in deliveries by cesarean section. The large differences among countries, from about 16% to more than 60%, suggest that the cesarean delivery (CD) rate has little to do with evidence-based medicine. In this review, the background for the increasing CD rate is discussed as well as the limited positive effects on neonatal outcome in both term and preterm neonates. Negative effects of CD, including direct maternal morbidity, complications of subsequent pregnancies and iatrogenic early delivery resulting in increased neonatal morbidity, are discussed in addition to long-term implications for the offspring involving altered development of the immune system. The 'battle' to lower the CD rate will be difficult, but we should not forget that women are designed to deliver vaginally and not by cesarean section.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cesarean Section / adverse effects*
  • Child Development / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant Health / statistics & numerical data
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Maternal Health / statistics & numerical data
  • Natural Childbirth*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Time