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The Effect of the Macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 Diet vs. The Recommended Diet in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: The Randomized Controlled MADIAB Trial

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The Effect of the Macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 Diet vs. The Recommended Diet in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: The Randomized Controlled MADIAB Trial

Andreea Soare et al. Nutr Metab (Lond).

Abstract

Background: Diet is an important component of type 2 diabetes therapy. Low adherence to current therapeutic diets points out to the need for alternative dietary approaches. This study evaluated the effect of a different dietary approach, the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet, and compared it with standard diets recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A randomized, controlled, open-label, 21-day trial was undertaken in patients with type 2 diabetes comparing the Ma-Pi 2 diet with standard (control) diet recommended by professional societies for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and post-prandial blood glucose (PPBG) were primary outcomes. HbA1c, insulin resistance (IR), lipid panel and anthropometrics were secondary outcomes.

Results: After correcting for age, gender, BMI at baseline, and physical activity, there was a significantly greater reduction in the primary outcomes FBG (95% CI: 1.79; 13.46) and PPBG (95% CI: 5.39; 31.44) in those patients receiving the Ma-Pi 2 diet compared with those receiving the control diet. Statistically significantly greater reductions in the secondary outcomes, HbA1c (95% CI: 1.28; 5.46), insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and LDL/HDL ratio, BMI, body weight, waist and hip circumference were also found in the Ma-Pi 2 diet group compared with the control diet group. The latter group had a significantly greater reduction of triglycerides compared with the Ma-Pi 2 diet group.

Conclusions: Intervention with a short-term Ma-Pi 2 diet resulted in significantly greater improvements in metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with intervention with standard diets recommended for these patients.

Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10467793.

Keywords: Fasting blood glucose; Macrobiotic diet; Type 2 diabetes.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Reduction in primary and secondary outcomes from baseline to T21 in the Ma-Pi 2 group vs. controls. Primary outcomes - Percentage change in FBG and PPBG from baseline to T21 in the Ma-Pi 2 group vs. control group. The figure represents the results of the bivariate analysis when the Ma-Pi 2 and control groups were compared in the percentage change between T0 and T21 of the efficacy variables (non-adjusted values). Secondary outcomes - Percentage change in HbA1c, lipid panel, BMI, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference from baseline to T21 in the Ma-Pi 2 group vs. control group. The figure represents the results of the bivariate analysis when the Ma-Pi 2 and control groups were compared in the percentage change between T0 and T21 of the efficacy variables (non-adjusted values).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Linear distribution of the daily blood glucose values during the 21 days in and between groups. The figure represents the results of a non-parametric longitudinal analysis of all daily FBG and PPBG values between baseline and T21 in the Ma-Pi 2 group and the control group.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Consort diagram reflecting flow of study participants through the study.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Percentage of patients who achieved or maintained target blood glucose levels after 21 days of dietary treatment.

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