Background: Diet is an important component of type 2 diabetes therapy. Low adherence to current therapeutic diets points out to the need for alternative dietary approaches. This study evaluated the effect of a different dietary approach, the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet, and compared it with standard diets recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: A randomized, controlled, open-label, 21-day trial was undertaken in patients with type 2 diabetes comparing the Ma-Pi 2 diet with standard (control) diet recommended by professional societies for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and post-prandial blood glucose (PPBG) were primary outcomes. HbA1c, insulin resistance (IR), lipid panel and anthropometrics were secondary outcomes.
Results: After correcting for age, gender, BMI at baseline, and physical activity, there was a significantly greater reduction in the primary outcomes FBG (95% CI: 1.79; 13.46) and PPBG (95% CI: 5.39; 31.44) in those patients receiving the Ma-Pi 2 diet compared with those receiving the control diet. Statistically significantly greater reductions in the secondary outcomes, HbA1c (95% CI: 1.28; 5.46), insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and LDL/HDL ratio, BMI, body weight, waist and hip circumference were also found in the Ma-Pi 2 diet group compared with the control diet group. The latter group had a significantly greater reduction of triglycerides compared with the Ma-Pi 2 diet group.
Conclusions: Intervention with a short-term Ma-Pi 2 diet resulted in significantly greater improvements in metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with intervention with standard diets recommended for these patients.
Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10467793.
Keywords: Fasting blood glucose; Macrobiotic diet; Type 2 diabetes.