Objectives: Critically ill cancer patients are at increased risk for acute kidney injury, but studies on these patients are scarce and were all single centered conducted in specialized intensive care units. The objective was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes in a prospective cohort of cancer patients admitted to several intensive care units with acute kidney injury.
Methods: Prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in intensive care units from 28 hospitals in Brazil over a two-month period. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with hospital mortality.
Results: Out of all 717 intensive care unit admissions, 87 (12%) had acute kidney injury and 36% of them received renal replacement therapy. Kidney injury developed more frequently in patients with hematological malignancies than in patients with solid tumors (26% vs. 11%, P=0.003). Ischemia/shock (76%) and sepsis (67%) were the main contributing factor for and kidney injury was multifactorial in 79% of the patients. Hospital mortality was 71%. General and renal-specific severity-of-illness scores were inaccurate in predicting outcomes for these patients. In a multivariate analysis, length of hospital stay prior to intensive care unit, acute organ dysfunctions, need for mechanical ventilation and a poor performance status were associated with increased mortality. Moreover, cancer-related characteristics were not associated with outcomes.
Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that intensive care units admission and advanced life-support should be considered in selected critically ill cancer patients with kidney injury.