Recent studies have shown the benefits of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in supporting adults with severe respiratory or cardiac failure refractory to conventional treatments. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the usage of ECMO in adults to identify recent trends within the United States. The usage of ECMO, the survival rates, and the hospitalization costs from 2006 to 2011 were analyzed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. The rate of ECMO cases per million adult discharges increased 433% from 11.4 (95% confidence interval, 6.1-16.8) in 2006 to 60.9 (95% confidence interval, 28.1-93.7) in 2011 (p for trend = 0.001). There was a trend toward improved survival rates, but this was not statistically significant (p for trend = 0.14). The costs per day have not changed significantly (p for trend = 0.07) nor have the total costs per patient (p for trend = 0.87). In conclusion, there was a huge increase in the usage of ECMO in adults from 2006 to 2011 with a trend toward improved survival rates and no increase in hospitalization costs.