Uterine leiomyosarcoma: a review article

Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014 Nov;24(9):1538-42. doi: 10.1097/IGC.0000000000000290.


Uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are rare aggressive tumors, with high recurrence rates, even when confined to the uterine corpus at the time of diagnosis. These tumors are large myometrial masses, which typically spread hematogenously. Patients present with vague symptoms similar to those of patients with leiomyomas. Most patients are diagnosed with LMS postoperatively. In the presence of metastatic disease, complete surgical cytoreduction should be attempted when feasible. Lymphadenectomy should be performed only in patients with nodes suspected of harboring metastatic disease and as part of a cytoreductive effort. There are conflicting data to support adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy for early-stage disease. Patients with advanced-stage disease should receive gemcitabine and docetaxel adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with recurrent disease are candidates for a wide variety of second-line treatments, of which many are investigational. Although prognosis remains dismal, ongoing studies are investigating the role of advanced imaging, multimodality treatment, prognostic nomograms, and unique biomedical pathways to increase understanding of LMS and improve therapeutic options for patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis*
  • Leiomyosarcoma / therapy*
  • Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Uterine Neoplasms / therapy*