Background: Yellow nutsedge is one of the most problematic sedges in Arkansas rice, requiring the frequent use of halosulfuron (sulfonylurea) for its control. In the summer of 2012, halosulfuron at 53 g ha(-1) (labeled field rate) failed to control yellow nutsedge. The level of resistance to halosulfuron was determined in the putative resistant biotype, and its cross-resistance to other acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors from four different herbicide families. ALS enzyme assays and analysis of the ALS gene were used to ascertain the resistance mechanism.
Results: None of the resistant plants was killed by halosulfuron at a dose of 13 568 g ha(-1) (256× the field dose), indicating a high level of resistance. Based on the whole-plant bioassay, the resistant biotype was not controlled by any of the ALS-inhibiting herbicides (imazamox, imazethapyr, penoxsulam, bispyribac, pyrithiobac-sodium, bensulfuron and halosulfuron) tested at the labeled field rate. The ALS enzyme from the resistant biotype was 2540 times less responsive to halosulfuron than the susceptible biotype, and a Trp574 -to-Leu substitution was detected by ALS gene sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq.
Conclusion: The results suggest a target-site alteration as the mechanism of resistance in yellow nutsedge, which accounts for the cross-resistance to other ALS-inhibiting herbicide families.
Keywords: ALS assay; ALS gene sequencing; Cyperus esculentus; Illumina HiSeq; herbicide resistance mechanism; yellow nutsedge.
© 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.