Wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia: review of pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis and management

Clin Exp Optom. 2015 Jan;98(1):25-30. doi: 10.1111/cxo.12200. Epub 2014 Oct 12.


Wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) is an uncommon disorder of ocular motility that possesses a unique spectrum of clinical findings, consisting of primary gaze exotropia, adduction impairment and nystagmus of the abducting eye. WEBINO is a variant of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) sharing similar pathophysiology and aetiologies. Much of the literature published on internuclear ophthalmoplegia and its variants focuses on aetiology and pathophysiology, whereas there has been less information addressing prognosis and management. This review will provide current perspectives on the pathogenesis, prognosis and management of WEBINO syndrome.

Keywords: abducens nucleus; brainstem infarction; diplopia; exotropia; extraocular muscle surgery; internuclear ophthalmoplegia; medial longitudinal fasciculus; multiple sclerosis; nystagmus; ocular motility; paramedian pontine reticular formation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological*
  • Disease Management*
  • Eye Movements / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Ocular Motility Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Ocular Motility Disorders* / physiopathology
  • Ocular Motility Disorders* / therapy
  • Prognosis