Identification, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency during the first 1000 days

Nutrients. 2014 Oct 10;6(10):4093-114. doi: 10.3390/nu6104093.


Iron deficiency is a global problem across the life course, but infants and their mothers are especially vulnerable to both the development and the consequences of iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy can predispose offspring to the development of iron deficiency during infancy, with potentially lifelong sequelae. This review explores iron status throughout these "first 1000 days" from pregnancy through two years of age, covering the role of iron and the epidemiology of iron deficiency, as well as its consequences, identification, interventions and remaining research gaps.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency* / diagnosis
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency* / epidemiology
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency* / prevention & control
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency* / therapy
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Iron Deficiencies*
  • Iron, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
  • Maternal-Fetal Exchange*
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors


  • Iron, Dietary