Amphiphilic brush-like block copolymers composed of polynorbonene-cholesterol/poly(ethylene glycol) (P(NBCh9-b-NBPEG)) self-assembled to form a long circulating nanostructure capable of encapsulating the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) with high drug loading (22.1% w/w). The release of DOX from the DOX-loaded P(NBCh9-b-NBPEG) nanoparticles (DOX-NPs) was steady at less than 2% per day in PBS. DOX-NPs were effectively internalized by human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas blank nanoparticles were noncytotoxic. The DOX-NPs demonstrated a superior in vivo circulation time relative to that of free DOX. Tissue distribution and in vivo imaging studies showed that DOX-NPs preferentially accumulated in tumor tissue with markedly reduced accumulation in the heart and other vital organs. The DOX-NPs greatly improved survival and significantly inhibited tumor growth in tumor-bearing SCID mice compared to that for the untreated and free DOX-treated groups. The results indicated that self-assembled P(NBCh9-b-NBPEG) may be a useful carrier for improving tumor delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs.