Forty-two patients relapsing after an unmanipulated haploidentical BM transplant and post-transplant CY (PT-CY), were given 108 DLI, with median interval from transplant of 266 days (range, 67-1372). DLI were given at escalating doses, expressed as CD3+ cells/kg, without GVHD prophylaxis, and ranged from 1 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(7) cells/kg (median 5 × 10(5) cells/kg). The average number of DLI per patient was 2.6 (range, 1-6). The diagnosis was leukemias (n=32) grafted with a myeloablative regimen and Hodgkin's disease (n=10), grafted with a nonmyeloablative regimen. Leukemic patients with molecular relapse (n=20), received DLI alone (n=17) or in association with azacytidine (n=3); leukemic patients with hematologic relapse (n=12) received chemotherapy followed by DLI (n=11) or DLI alone (n=1); Hodgkin patients received DLI following 1-3 courses of chemotherapy. In these three groups the incidence of acute GVHD II-III was 15%, 17% and 10%; response rate was 45%, 33% and 70%; 2-year actuarial survival was 43%, 19% and 80% respectively. This study confirms that escalating doses of DLI can be given in the haploidentical setting with PT-CY, with a relatively low risk of acute GVHD. Response rates and survival are dependent on the underlying disease.