The fungal aroma gene ATF1 promotes dispersal of yeast cells through insect vectors

Cell Rep. 2014 Oct 23;9(2):425-32. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.09.009. Epub 2014 Oct 9.


Yeast cells produce various volatile metabolites that are key contributors to the pleasing fruity and flowery aroma of fermented beverages. Several of these fruity metabolites, including isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate, are produced by a dedicated enzyme, the alcohol acetyl transferase Atf1. However, despite much research, the physiological role of acetate ester formation in yeast remains unknown. Using a combination of molecular biology, neurobiology, and behavioral tests, we demonstrate that deletion of ATF1 alters the olfactory response in the antennal lobe of fruit flies that feed on yeast cells. The flies are much less attracted to the mutant yeast cells, and this in turn results in reduced dispersal of the mutant yeast cells by the flies. Together, our results uncover the molecular details of an intriguing aroma-based communication and mutualism between microbes and their insect vectors. Similar mechanisms may exist in other microbes, including microbes on flowering plants and pathogens.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Arthropod Antennae / drug effects
  • Arthropod Antennae / physiology
  • Drosophila / drug effects
  • Drosophila / physiology*
  • Gene Deletion
  • Odorants
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / chemistry
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Smell*


  • Acetates
  • Proteins
  • alcohol O-acetyltransferase