Oral pharmacokinetics of the acidic drugs, diclofenac and sulfamonomethoxine in male Shiba goats

J Vet Med Sci. 2015 Jan;77(1):21-6. doi: 10.1292/jvms.14-0261. Epub 2014 Oct 10.


In the present study, we examined the oral pharmacokinetics of the acidic drugs, diclofenac (DF) and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), which have different physicochemical properties, in Shiba goats. DF and SMM were intravenously and orally administered to 5 male goats using a crossover design. The T(max) of DF and SMM were reached 1.5 and 5.6 hr after they have been orally administered, respectively, and this was followed by their slow elimination. The elimination of both drugs was markedly faster after being intravenously rather than orally administered, which indicated flip-flop phenomena after the oral administration. The mean absorption times (MATs) of DF and SMM were 6 and 15 hr, respectively. This slow absorption may have been due to slow gastric emptying in goats. The large difference observed in MATs between DF and SMM may have been because DF, which is more lipophilic than SMM, was partly absorbed from the forestomach. Therefore, these results suggest that the absorption of highly lipophilic drugs from the forestomach may be markedly high in Shiba goats. In case of drugs whose elimination is quite fast, their efficacies may appear from the early stage after oral administration even in ruminants, because elimination rate is the determinant factor of T(max) in flip-flop phenomena. Such drugs may be used orally even in ruminants.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Infective Agents / blood
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / blood
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacokinetics
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diclofenac / administration & dosage
  • Diclofenac / blood
  • Diclofenac / pharmacokinetics*
  • Goats / blood
  • Goats / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Rumen
  • Sulfamonomethoxine / administration & dosage
  • Sulfamonomethoxine / blood
  • Sulfamonomethoxine / pharmacokinetics*


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Diclofenac
  • Sulfamonomethoxine