Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum L

Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2014 Sep;7S1:S461-8. doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60275-3.


Objective: To evaluate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of pure compound, piperine along with hexane and ethanol extracts of Piper nigrum L. fruit in mice and rats.

Methods: The analgesic activity was determined by tail immersion method, analgesy-meter, hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing test. While the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats.

Results: Piperine at a dose of 5 mg/kg and ethanol extract at a dose of 15 mg/kg after 120 min and hexane extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg after 60 min exhibited significant (P<0.05) analgesic activity by tail immersion method, in comparison to ethanol extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg using analgesy-meter in rats. However, with hotplate method, piperine produced significant (P<0.05) analgesic activity at lower doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) after 120 min. A similar analgesic activity was noted with hexane extract at 15 mg/kg. However, in writhing test, ethanol extract significantly (P<0.05) stopped the number of writhes at a dose of 15 mg/kg, while piperine at a dose of 10 mg/kg completely terminated the writhes in mice. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect using plethysmometer, piperine at doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg started producing anti-inflammatory effect after 30 min, which lasted till 60 min, whereas hexane and ethanol extracts also produced a similar activity at a slightly low dose (10 mg/kg) but lasted for 120 min.

Conclusions: It is concluded from the present study that Piper nigrum L possesses potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: Acetic acid; Analgesic activity; Anti-inflammatory activity; Carrageenan; Piper nigrum Linnacus.