Factors associated with depression and severe depression in patients with COPD

Respir Med. 2014 Nov;108(11):1615-25. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2014.08.010. Epub 2014 Sep 6.


Background: Depression is very prevalent in COPD and may be associated with poor clinical outcomes.

Method: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of depression and moderate to severe depression in COPD. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck's Depression Inventory. The COPD assessment test (CAT) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires were used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Severity of COPD was assessed with the BODEx index and physical activity was estimated by the mean self-declared time walked per day.

Results: A total of 836 patients were included and up to 74.6% had some degree of depression with 51.5% having moderate to severe depression. On multivariate analysis, moderate to severe depression was associated with suicidal ideation (OR, 6.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-28.24), worse quality of life: EQ-5D (OR, 0.89; 95%CI, 0.86-0.93) and worse CAT scores (OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.19-1.46). When questionnaires were not included in the analysis, significant depression was associated with the Charlson comorbidity index, minutes walked per day and BODEx score.

Conclusions: Depression is frequent in COPD and is associated with suicidal ideation, impaired HRQoL, increase in comorbidities, a reduction in physical activity and increased severity of COPD measured by the BODEx index.

Keywords: Beck's depression inventory; COPD; Depression; Physical activity; Quality of life.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / etiology*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / psychology*
  • Quality of Life
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Spain / epidemiology