Cytokines in bipolar disorder: paving the way for neuroprogression

Neural Plast. 2014;2014:360481. doi: 10.1155/2014/360481. Epub 2014 Sep 9.


Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, chronic, and recurrent psychiatric illness. It has been associated with high prevalence of medical comorbidities and cognitive impairment. Its neurobiology is not completely understood, but recent evidence has shown a wide range of immune changes. Cytokines are proteins involved in the regulation and the orchestration of the immune response. We performed a review on the involvement of cytokines in BD. We also discuss the cytokines involvement in the neuroprogression of BD. It has been demonstrated that increased expression of cytokines in the central nervous system in postmortem studies is in line with the elevated circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines in BD patients. The proinflammatory profile and the immune imbalance in BD might be regarded as potential targets to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bipolar Disorder / etiology
  • Bipolar Disorder / immunology*
  • Brain / immunology*
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Disease Progression*
  • Humans


  • Cytokines