Duration of immunity in red wolves (Canis rufus) following vaccination with a modified live parvovirus and canine distemper vaccine

J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Sep;45(3):550-4. doi: 10.1638/2013-0227R2.1.


There is growing information available regarding duration of immunity for core vaccines in both domestic and nondomestic species. Vaccination protocols in nondomestic canids have frequently followed guidelines developed for the domestic dog; however, these protocols can be inappropriate for nondomestic canids such as the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), leaving some animals susceptible to infectious disease and others at risk for contracting vaccine-induced disease. In this study, red wolves (Canis rufus) were vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and vaccination titers were followed annually for 3 yr. One hundred percent of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CDV for 3 yr and 96.9% of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CPV for 3 yr. Seroconversion for canine adenovirus was sporadic. The results of this study support decreasing the frequency of vaccine administration in the red wolf population to a triennial basis.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Distemper / prevention & control*
  • Distemper Virus, Canine / immunology*
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • Parvoviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Parvoviridae Infections / veterinary*
  • Parvovirus, Canine / immunology*
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*
  • Wolves*


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Viral Vaccines