Development and psychometric testing of the attitude toward potential pregnancy scale

J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2014 Nov-Dec;43(6):710-8. doi: 10.1111/1552-6909.12511. Epub 2014 Oct 14.


Objective: To develop and test a comprehensive tool for measuring women's attitudes toward the possibility of becoming pregnant.

Design: Cross-sectional mixed methods study.

Setting: Two obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) clinics and one family planning clinic in Baltimore, Maryland.

Participants: One-hundred thirty (130) nonpregnant, primarily African American women (84%) age 18 to 29.

Methods: Participants completed a computer-based survey as part of a larger retrospective mixed-methods study. The Attitude Toward Potential Pregnancy Scale (APPS) was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and hypothesis testing.

Results: Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency for the APPS was 0.86. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. All items loaded on one factor. Support for construct validity was demonstrated using logistic regression, where the odds of being a highly effective contraceptive user decreased by 8% with each one-point increase in score on the APPS (odds ratio = 0.92; confidence interval [0.87, 0.98]).

Conclusions: This study provides support for reliability and validity of the APPS. The APPS may be a useful tool for understanding pregnancy attitude in future studies and in clinical practice. Further research is needed to assess the usefulness of the scale with other groups of women, its utility in the clinical practice setting, and its potential predictive validity for unintended pregnancy.

Keywords: contraception; pregnancy attitude; psychometric testing; unintended pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health / ethnology*
  • Black or African American / psychology
  • Contraception Behavior* / ethnology
  • Contraception Behavior* / statistics & numerical data
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Family Planning Services*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy, Unplanned / psychology
  • Psychometrics / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sexual Behavior* / ethnology
  • Sexual Behavior* / statistics & numerical data
  • United States