Thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Nov 7;9(11):1974-86. doi: 10.2215/CJN.04480413. Epub 2014 Oct 15.


The thick ascending limb occupies a central anatomic and functional position in human renal physiology, with critical roles in the defense of the extracellular fluid volume, the urinary concentrating mechanism, calcium and magnesium homeostasis, bicarbonate and ammonium homeostasis, and urinary protein composition. The last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in the understanding of the molecular physiology and pathophysiology of this nephron segment. These advances are the subject of this review, with emphasis on particularly recent developments.

Keywords: Na transport; acidosis; calcium receptor; renal physiology; water transport.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ammonium Compounds / metabolism*
  • Bicarbonates / metabolism*
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Chlorides / metabolism*
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Ion Transport / physiology*
  • Loop of Henle / anatomy & histology
  • Loop of Henle / metabolism*
  • Magnesium / metabolism
  • Potassium / metabolism*
  • Sodium / metabolism*
  • Uromodulin / metabolism


  • Ammonium Compounds
  • Bicarbonates
  • Chlorides
  • Uromodulin
  • Sodium
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Calcium