Knee contact force asymmetries in patients who failed return-to-sport readiness criteria 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Am J Sports Med. 2014 Dec;42(12):2917-25. doi: 10.1177/0363546514552184. Epub 2014 Oct 15.


Background: After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, contact forces are decreased in the injured knee when compared with the uninjured knee. The persistence of contact force asymmetries after ACL reconstruction may increase the risk of reinjury and may play an important role in the development of knee osteoarthritis in these patients. Functional performance may also be useful in identifying patients who demonstrate potentially harmful joint contact force asymmetries after ACL reconstruction.

Hypothesis: Knee joint contact force asymmetries would be present during gait after ACL reconstruction, and performance on a specific set of validated return-to-sport (RTS) readiness criteria would discriminate between those who demonstrated contact force asymmetries and those who did not.

Study design: Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods: A total of 29 patients with ACL ruptures participated in gait analysis and RTS readiness testing 6 months after reconstruction. Muscle and joint contact forces were estimated using an electromyography (EMG)-driven musculoskeletal model of the knee. The magnitude of typical limb asymmetry in uninjured controls was used to define limits of meaningful limb asymmetry in patients after ACL reconstruction. The RTS testing included isometric quadriceps strength testing, 4 unilateral hop tests, and 2 self-report questionnaires. Paired t tests were used to assess limb symmetry for peak medial and tibiofemoral contact forces in all patients, and a mixed-design analysis of variance was used to analyze the effect of passing or failing RTS testing on contact force asymmetry.

Results: Among all patients, neither statistically significant nor meaningful contact force asymmetries were identified. However, patients who failed RTS testing exhibited meaningful contact force asymmetries, with tibiofemoral contact force being significantly lower for the involved knee. Conversely, patients who passed RTS testing exhibited neither significant nor meaningful contact force asymmetries.

Conclusion: Joint contact force asymmetries during gait are present in some patients 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Patients who demonstrated poor functional performance on RTS readiness testing exhibited significant and meaningful contact force asymmetries.

Clinical relevance: When assessing all patients together, variability in the functional status obscured significant and meaningful differences in contact force asymmetry in patients 6 months after ACL reconstruction. These specific RTS readiness criteria appear to differentiate between those who demonstrate joint contact force symmetry after ACL reconstruction and those who do not.

Keywords: ACL; contact force; knee; reconstruction.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiopathology
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Athletic Injuries / physiopathology
  • Athletic Injuries / surgery
  • Biomechanical Phenomena / physiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Electromyography
  • Exercise Test
  • Female
  • Gait / physiology
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Muscle Strength / physiology
  • Quadriceps Muscle / physiology
  • Rupture
  • Surveys and Questionnaires