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Review
. 2014 Nov;262(1):193-215.
doi: 10.1111/imr.12212.

Phagocytosis: Receptors, Signal Integration, and the Cytoskeleton

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Review

Phagocytosis: Receptors, Signal Integration, and the Cytoskeleton

Spencer A Freeman et al. Immunol Rev. .

Abstract

Phagocytosis is a remarkably complex and versatile process: it contributes to innate immunity through the ingestion and elimination of pathogens, while also being central to tissue homeostasis and remodeling by clearing effete cells. The ability of phagocytes to perform such diverse functions rests, in large part, on their vast repertoire of receptors. In this review, we address the various receptor types, their mobility in the plane of the membrane, and two modes of receptor crosstalk: priming and synergy. A major section is devoted to the actin cytoskeleton, which not only governs receptor mobility and clustering but also is instrumental in particle engulfment. Four stages of the actin remodeling process are identified and discussed: (i) the 'resting' stage that precedes receptor engagement, (ii) the disruption of the cortical actin prior to formation of the phagocytic cup, (iii) the actin polymerization that propels pseudopod extension, and (iv) the termination of polymerization and removal of preassembled actin that are required for focal delivery of endomembranes and phagosomal sealing. These topics are viewed in the larger context of the differentiation and polarization of the phagocytic cells.

Keywords: crosstalk; immunoreceptor; mechanosensing; phagocytic synapse; receptor mobility; single-particle tracking.

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