Peritoneal cancer patients not suitable for cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC during explorative surgery: risk factors, treatment options, and prognosis

Ann Surg Oncol. 2015 Apr;22(4):1236-42. doi: 10.1245/s10434-014-4148-x. Epub 2014 Oct 16.


Background: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is currently the only curative option for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. Despite meticulous preoperative assessment, CRS and HIPEC appear to be impossible in a subset of patients at the time of surgery. This study investigated which clinical factors may identify these patients before surgery and reported on factors influencing survival.

Methods: All patients with PC of colorectal origin between April 2005 and November 2013 who underwent exploratory surgery to determine whether cytoreduction and HIPEC was feasible were included in this study. Details concerning preoperative patient characteristics, perioperative outcomes, treatment and survival were compared.

Results: In total, 350 patients with PC were referred to evaluate the possibility of CRS + HIPEC of which 268 (76.6 %) underwent CRS and HIPEC and 82 (23.4 %) had an open-close procedure. The main reason for discontinuing surgery was widespread peritoneal disease (50 %). A preoperative ostomy and an ASA score of 3 were associated with an increased risk for "open and close" (O&C). Median survival was 11.2 months in patients treated with palliative chemotherapy (75 %) compared with 2.7 months with palliative care only.

Conclusions: CRS and HIPEC were deemed unsuitable in almost a quarter of all patients undergoing surgery. No strong clinical predictors for O&C were found, stressing the need for better preoperative imaging modalities. Survival in these patients is limited, but the majority could be treated with palliative chemotherapy resulting in survival of almost 1 year.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects*
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / adverse effects*
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Postoperative Complications*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate