Midstream clean-catch urine collection in newborns: a randomized controlled study

Eur J Pediatr. 2015 May;174(5):577-82. doi: 10.1007/s00431-014-2434-z. Epub 2014 Oct 17.


We aimed to evaluate a recently defined technique based on bladder stimulation and paravertebral lumbar massage maneuvers in collecting a midstream clean-catch urine sample in newborns. A total of 127 term newborns were randomly assigned either to the experimental group or the control group. Twenty-five minutes after feeding, the genital and perineal areas of the babies were cleaned. The babies were held under the armpits with legs dangling. Bladder stimulation and lumbar paravertebral massage maneuvers were only applied to the babies in the experimental group. Success was defined as collection of a urine sample within 5 min of starting the stimulation maneuvers in the experimental group and of holding under the armpits in the control group. The success rate of urine collection was significantly higher in the experimental group (78%) than in the control group (33%; p < 0.001). The median time (interquartile range) for sample collection was 60 s (64.5 s) in the experimental group and 300 s (95 s) in the control group (p < 0.0001). Contamination rates were similar in both groups (p = 0.770).

Conclusion: We suggest that bladder stimulation and lumbar paravertebral massage is a safe, quick, and effective way of collecting midstream clean-catch urine in newborns.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Massage
  • Physical Stimulation
  • Urinary Bladder / physiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / urine*
  • Urine Specimen Collection / methods*