Translational biology of osteosarcoma

Nat Rev Cancer. 2014 Nov;14(11):722-35. doi: 10.1038/nrc3838. Epub 2014 Oct 16.


For the past 30 years, improvements in the survival of patients with osteosarcoma have been mostly incremental. Despite evidence of genomic instability and a high frequency of chromothripsis and kataegis, osteosarcomas carry few recurrent targetable mutations, and trials of targeted agents have been generally disappointing. Bone has a highly specialized immune environment and many immune signalling pathways are important in bone homeostasis. The success of the innate immune stimulant mifamurtide in the adjuvant treatment of non-metastatic osteosarcoma suggests that newer immune-based treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, may substantially improve disease outcome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bone Development
  • Humans
  • Osteosarcoma* / drug therapy
  • Osteosarcoma* / genetics
  • Osteosarcoma* / immunology
  • Translational Research, Biomedical*


  • Antineoplastic Agents