Outcomes of infected cardiovascular implantable devices in dialysis patients

Am J Nephrol. 2014;40(3):280-7. doi: 10.1159/000366453. Epub 2014 Oct 15.


Background/aims: Dialysis patients are at a higher risk for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection-related hospitalizations. We compared the outcomes and cost for dialysis and non-dialysis patients hospitalized with CIED infections.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) discharge records from 2005 to 2010. Patients with CIED infections were identified using ICD-9 codes for device-related infections or device procedure along with bacteremia, endocarditis or systemic infection. Dialysis patients were identified using ICD-9 codes. Multivariable logistic and linear regressions were performed to examine in-hospital mortality, length of stay and cost.

Results: Of the 87,798 estimated hospitalizations with CIED infections, 6,665 (7.6%) were dialysis patients. CIED-infection-related hospitalization has increased over time among dialysis patients. In-hospital mortality was higher among dialysis patients (13.6% vs. 5.9%, p < 0.001). In the multivariable model, dialysis patients had higher odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.98; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.4) compared to the non-dialysis group. Dialysis patients had a longer median length of stay (12 days vs. 7 days, p < 0.001) and majority required extended care facility upon discharge (51.2% vs. 35.0%, p < 0.001) compared to the non-dialysis group. Dialysis status was associated with 50.3% increased cost of hospitalization (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: CIED-infection related hospitalization is increasing among patients undergoing dialysis and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality, longer hospital stay and higher costs of hospitalization. Future studies should examine the reasons for such a high risk and find means to improve outcomes in dialysis population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy
  • Databases, Factual
  • Defibrillators, Implantable*
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / mortality*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Prosthesis-Related Infections / mortality*
  • Prosthesis-Related Infections / therapy
  • Renal Dialysis / adverse effects*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States
  • Young Adult