Pro-substance p for evaluation of risk in acute myocardial infarction

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Oct 21;64(16):1698-707. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.05.074.


Background: Pro-substance P (ProSP) is a stable surrogate marker for labile substance P, which has pro-inflammatory effects, increases platelet aggregation and clot strength, and reduces fibrinolysis.

Objectives: This study assessed whether ProSP was associated with poor prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to identify novel pathophysiological mechanisms.

Methods: ProSP was measured in 1,148 AMI patients (825 men, mean age 66.2 ± 12.8 years). Endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (composite of death, reinfarction, and heart failure [HF] hospitalization), death/reinfarction, and death/HF. GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) scores were compared with ProSP for death and/or reinfarction at 6 months.

Results: During 2-year follow-up, there were 140 deaths, 112 HF hospitalizations, and 149 re-AMI. ProSP levels were highest on the first 2 days after admission and related to estimated glomerular filtration rate, age, history of diabetes, ischemic heart disease or hypertension, Killip class, left ventricular wall motion index, and sex. Multivariate Cox regression models showed ProSP level was a predictor of major adverse events (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.54; p < 0.002), death and/or AMI (HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.68; p < 0.0005), death and/or HF (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.67; p < 0.001). ProSP levels with GRACE scores were independent predictors of 6-month death and/or reinfarction (p < 0.0005 for both). ProSP-adjusted GRACE scores reclassified patients significantly (overall category-free net reclassification improvement of 31.6 (95% CI: 14.3 to 49.0; p < 0.0005) mainly by down-classifying those without endpoints.

Conclusions: ProSP levels post-AMI are prognostic for death, recurrent AMI, or HF, and they improve risk prediction of GRACE scores, predominantly by down-classifying risk in those without events.

Keywords: B-type natriuretic peptide; GRACE score; acute coronary syndrome(s); myocardial infarction; neurokinins; substance P.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / blood*
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis*
  • Risk Factors
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Substance P / blood*


  • Biomarkers
  • Substance P