Taurine has multiple physiological activities and it is decreased by chemotherapy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine supplementation on the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Forty young patients aged over 16 (range: 16-23 years) suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all receiving same chemotherapy regimen) were recruited for the study at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy. The study population was randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 g per day orally, divided into two doses, taken 6 h after chemotherapeutic agents) for 6 months. Life quality and adverse effects including nausea and vomiting, taste and smell alterations, and weariness were assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. Of 40 participants, 32 finished the study (14 female and 18 male; mean age 19.2 ± 1.9 years). Four treatment and four placebo arm patients discontinued: one immigrated from the province, one died during the study, and six refused to continue. The results indicated that taurine-supplemented patients reported a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in chemotherapy-induced nausea and/or vomiting after taking taurine during study. Taurine significantly improved chemotherapy-induced taste and smell alterations (P < 0.05). Moreover, taurine significantly reduced weariness compared to placebo group (P < 0.05). This study showed that taurine co-administration decreased chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.