Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) represents a significant health disparity among medically underserved Asian and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (API) populations. Studies evaluating adherence to HBV screening and vaccination guidelines in this population are limited.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate HBV screening and vaccination practices using both provider self-report and patient records.
Design: Medical records for 20,574 API adults were reviewed retrospectively and primary care providers were surveyed to evaluate rates and adherence to HBV screening and vaccination guidelines.
Participants: The study included primary care providers and their adult API patients in the San Francisco safety-net healthcare system.
Main measures: Patient, practice, and provider factors, as well as HBV screening and vaccination practices, were assessed using provider survey constructs and patient laboratory and clinical data. Generalized linear mixed models and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with recommended HBV screening and vaccination.
Key results: The mean age of patients was 52 years, and 63.4 % of patients were female. Only 61.5 % underwent HBV testing, and 47.4 % of HBV-susceptible patients were vaccinated. Of 148 (44.8 %) responding providers, most were knowledgeable and had a favorable attitude towards screening, but 43.2 % were unfamiliar with HBV guidelines. HBV screening was positively associated with favorable provider attitude score (OR per unit 1.80, 95 % CI 1.18-2.74) and negatively associated with female patient sex (OR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.73-0.92), a higher number of clinic patients per week (OR per 20 patients 0.46, 95 % CI 0.28-0.76), and provider barrier score (OR per unit 0.45, 95 % CI 0.24-0.87). HBV vaccination was negatively associated with provider barrier score (OR per unit 0.48, 95 % CI 0.25-0.91).
Conclusions: Rates of HBV screening and vaccination of API patients in this safety-net system are suboptimal, and provider factors play a significant role. Efforts to cultivate positive attitudes among providers and expand healthcare system resources to reduce provider barriers to HBV care are warranted.