Aims: The study aim was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and to determine which clinical parameters present risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in these patients.
Methods: The study included 55 patients with APS treated at the Clinic for Ob/Gyn, Clinical Center of Serbia, from 2006 to 2012. The control group consisted of 55 healthy pregnant women. Data regarding previous pregnancies and conception method were registered. Immunological and laboratory tests were performed. Pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriage, intrauterine fetal death, hypertensive disorders, diabetes mellitus, phlebothrombosis, fetal growth restriction, premature delivery, delivery method, perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis were followed.
Results: The premature delivery rate in APS patients was 31.8%, and pregnancy loss was 18.2%. Significantly more patients with APS had thrombocytopenia, pregnancy losses, intrauterine growth restriction, and perinatal asphyxia compared with the control group. More miscarriages, preterm delivery, lower birth weight, preeclampsia, and IgM anticardiolipin antibody levels significantly correlated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although rare, respiratory distress syndrome can also worsen neonatal health status. According to ROC analysis, previous miscarriages correctly explained 66.3% of adverse pregnancy outcome cases. We generated four equations of adverse pregnancy outcome risk factors.
Conclusions: The most important prognostic factor for pregnancy outcome in APS patients is the number of previous miscarriages. Using appropriate current therapeutic protocol can enable live birth of a healthy newborn in most cases.