Group contingency interventions with children--1980-2010: a meta-analysis

Behav Modif. 2015 Mar;39(2):322-41. doi: 10.1177/0145445514554393. Epub 2014 Oct 16.


The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of group contingency procedures via meta-analysis. A total of 182 studies published between 1980 and 2010 were identified via PsychInfo that included group contingency as a keyword. Studies that met inclusion criteria (e.g., single-subject design, school-aged children; N = 50), were coded and effect sizes were calculated. Results strongly support the efficacy of group contingencies with an overall effect size of 3.41. Types of group contingencies were also evaluated for dependent group contingencies (ES = 3.75, n = 11), independent group contingencies (ES = 3.27, n = 8), and interdependent group contingencies (ES = 2.88, n = 35). These results clearly establish all varieties of group contingencies as efficacious for a wide range of target behaviors with school-aged children. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications.

Keywords: dependant group contingencies; group contingencies; group interventions; independent group contingencies; interdependent group contingencies; interventions with children.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Behavior Therapy / methods*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Problem Behavior / psychology*
  • Psychotherapy, Group / methods*
  • Schools