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. 2014 Sep 29;5:1090.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01090. eCollection 2014.

Cardiac Coherence, Self-Regulation, Autonomic Stability, and Psychosocial Well-Being

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Free PMC article

Cardiac Coherence, Self-Regulation, Autonomic Stability, and Psychosocial Well-Being

Rollin McCraty et al. Front Psychol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The ability to alter one's emotional responses is central to overall well-being and to effectively meeting the demands of life. One of the chief symptoms of events such as trauma, that overwhelm our capacities to successfully handle and adapt to them, is a shift in our internal baseline reference such that there ensues a repetitive activation of the traumatic event. This can result in high vigilance and over-sensitivity to environmental signals which are reflected in inappropriate emotional responses and autonomic nervous system dynamics. In this article we discuss the perspective that one's ability to self-regulate the quality of feeling and emotion of one's moment-to-moment experience is intimately tied to our physiology, and the reciprocal interactions among physiological, cognitive, and emotional systems. These interactions form the basis of information processing networks in which communication between systems occurs through the generation and transmission of rhythms and patterns of activity. Our discussion emphasizes the communication pathways between the heart and brain, as well as how these are related to cognitive and emotional function and self-regulatory capacity. We discuss the hypothesis that self-induced positive emotions increase the coherence in bodily processes, which is reflected in the pattern of the heart's rhythm. This shift in the heart rhythm in turn plays an important role in facilitating higher cognitive functions, creating emotional stability and facilitating states of calm. Over time, this establishes a new inner-baseline reference, a type of implicit memory that organizes perception, feelings, and behavior. Without establishing a new baseline reference, people are at risk of getting "stuck" in familiar, yet unhealthy emotional and behavioral patterns and living their lives through the automatic filters of past familiar or traumatic experience.

Keywords: HRV; HeartMath; cardiac coherence; coherence; heart rate variability; psychophysiological coherence; psychosocial well-being; trauma.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
Emotions and heart rhythm patterns. The heart rate tachograms on the left side show patterns in of the HRV waveforms typically observed in differing psychological states. The power spectral density (PSD) analysis of the HRV rhythms for each is shown on the left.
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
It shows the major afferent inputs from the body to the Dorsal Vagal Complex. Afferent pathways then connect directly to the amygdala, hypothalamus, and thalamus, etc. There is emerging evidence of a direct connection from the NTS to the frontal cortex.

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