The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database's 10th year anniversary: update 2015

Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Jan;43(Database issue):D914-20. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku935. Epub 2014 Oct 17.


Ten years ago, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; was developed out of a need to formalize, harmonize and centralize the information on numerous genes and proteins responding to environmental toxic agents across diverse species. CTD's initial approach was to facilitate comparisons of nucleotide and protein sequences of toxicologically significant genes by curating these sequences and electronically annotating them with chemical terms from their associated references. Since then, however, CTD has vastly expanded its scope to robustly represent a triad of chemical-gene, chemical-disease and gene-disease interactions that are manually curated from the scientific literature by professional biocurators using controlled vocabularies, ontologies and structured notation. Today, CTD includes 24 million toxicogenomic connections relating chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, Gene Ontology annotations, pathways and interaction modules. In this 10th year anniversary update, we outline the evolution of CTD, including our increased data content, new 'Pathway View' visualization tool, enhanced curation practices, pilot chemical-phenotype results and impending exposure data set. The prototype database originally described in our first report has transformed into a sophisticated resource used actively today to help scientists develop and test hypotheses about the etiologies of environmentally influenced diseases.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Databases, Chemical* / history
  • Disease / etiology
  • Disease / genetics
  • Genomics / history
  • History, 21st Century
  • Internet
  • Phenotype
  • Toxicogenetics* / history