Ecophysiological diversity of a novel member of the genus Alteromonas, and description of Alteromonas mediterranea sp. nov

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2015 Jan;107(1):119-32. doi: 10.1007/s10482-014-0309-y. Epub 2014 Oct 19.


Nine non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative bacteria originally designated as Alteromonas macleodii deep-sea ecotypes, were isolated from seawater samples collected from four separate locations; two deep-sea sites in the Mediterranean Sea and surface water of the Aegean Sea and English Channel. The six strains studied in vitro were found to tolerate up to 20 % NaCl. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the deep-sea ecotype strains was found to be between 75 and 89 %, whilst relatedness with the validly named Alteromonas species was found to be between 31 and 69 %. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) amongst the deep-sea ecotype strains was found to be 98-100 %; the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 85-100 %; the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, 95-100 %; and the strains possessed 30-32 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. The ANI between the deep-sea ecotype strains and A. macleodii ATCC 27126(T) and Alteromonas australica H 17(T) was found to be 80.6 and 74.6 %, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the phenotypic data obtained in vitro and data retrieved in silico from whole genome sequences. The results of a phylogenetic study that incorporated a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) and genomic analysis, together with the physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, clearly indicated that the group of deep-sea ecotype strains represents a distinct species within the genus Alteromonas. Based on these data, a new species, Alteromonas mediterranea, is proposed. The type strain is DE(T) ( = CIP 110805(T) = LMG 28347(T) = DSM 17117(T)).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alteromonas / classification*
  • Alteromonas / genetics
  • Alteromonas / physiology*
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • Cluster Analysis
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Ribosomal / chemistry
  • DNA, Ribosomal / genetics
  • Genome, Bacterial
  • Locomotion
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Seawater / microbiology*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Sodium Chloride / toxicity


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Sodium Chloride