Optimizing medication use with a pharmacist-provided comprehensive medication management service for patients with psychiatric disorders

Pharmacotherapy. 2014 Dec;34(12):1336-40. doi: 10.1002/phar.1503. Epub 2014 Oct 20.


Our objective was to evaluate a pharmacist-delivered comprehensive medication management (CMM) service provided to patients with psychiatric disorders. We conducted a retrospective review and analysis of medication-related data, and a return on investment cost analysis. The project consisted of 154 patients with psychiatric disorders who were referred to the CMM service by physicians, therapists, case managers, friends, or family, and were seen by the service between April 2011 and July 2013. CMM evaluates a patient's medications to ensure that they are appropriate, effective, safe, and convenient. Patients were seen by pharmacists trained in CMM and the treatment of mental illnesses, including one board-certified psychiatric pharmacist. All medications were reviewed including prescriptions, over-the-counter medications, and nutritional supplements. The patients' medication-related concerns, goals of treatment, vital signs, and laboratory studies were reviewed. Drug therapy problems such as adverse reactions, unnecessary medications, excessive doses, and poor medication adherence were identified, and written recommendations were mailed to patients and physicians within 1 week. Patients were offered follow-up in 4-6 weeks and were seen as many times as needed to resolve drug therapy problems. The 154 patients completed 256 CMM visits. A mean of 10.1 medical and psychiatric conditions and 13.7 medications/person were assessed. A mean of 5.6 drug therapy problems/patient were identified. A total net cost savings was estimated to be $90,484.00, with a mean savings of $586.55/patient. The cost of providing the service was estimated at $32,185.93. The return on investment was estimated to be 2.8; thus for every dollar spent on providing the service, $2.80 was estimated to be saved. Patients with mental illnesses may benefit from pharmacist-delivered CMM to help resolve drug therapy problems. Medication management may improve clinical outcomes and reduce costs. In addition, patients valued the opportunity to review their medications with a pharmacist.

Keywords: outcomes; patient safety; pharmacoeconomics; pharmacy practice; psychiatric disorders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cost Savings
  • Delivery of Health Care, Integrated / standards
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interdisciplinary Communication
  • Male
  • Medication Therapy Management / standards*
  • Mental Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Mental Disorders / economics
  • Middle Aged
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care*
  • Patient Compliance*
  • Pharmaceutical Services / standards*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • United States