Effect of mucoprotective plant-derived therapies on damage to colonic mucosa caused by carprofen and robenacoxib administered to healthy dogs for 21 days

Vet Q. 2014;34(4):185-93. doi: 10.1080/01652176.2014.968939. Epub 2014 Oct 20.


Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause gastrointestinal damage in dogs.

Hypothesis/objectives: To determine the extent to which lansoprazole, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution exhibit protective effects on colonic mucosa when administered to dogs concurrently with the NSAIDs carprofen or robenacoxib.

Animals and methods: Thirty-five healthy beagle dogs (15 male and 20 female) aged 13-14 weeks and weighing 4.3-5.5 kg at the beginning of the experiment were included. Endoscopy and biopsy of the caudal gastrointestinal tract were performed pretreatment and on the last day of a 21-day treatment period with (1) oral carprofen; (2) carprofen and the proton-pump inhibitor lansoprazole; (3) carprofen, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution that contained extracts of thyme, icelandic lichen, hyssop, and saponariae root; (4) robenacoxib; (5) robenacoxib and lansoprazole; (6) robenacoxib, liquorice extract, and herbal solution; or (7) an empty gelatin capsule. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis, Cochran's Q, and chi-squared test with p < 0.05 considered significant.

Results: Both carprofen and robenacoxib tested damaged the colonic mucosa with most severe microscopic lesions following administration of robenacoxib with lansoprazole. The risk of histopathological lesions in the colon increased most rapidly in robenacoxib with lansoprazole (absolute risk increase -0.85) similar to robenacoxib only (-0.75), whereas the best result was recorded following the plant remedies together with carprofen (-0.15) and the plant remedies together with robenacoxib (-0.2).

Conclusions and clinical importance: Concurrent administration of liquorice extract and an herbal solution with robenacoxib was associated with decreased severity of the NSAID-induced mucosal lesions.

Keywords: adverse effect; canine; carprofen; colon; dog; herbal treatment; lansoprazole; robenacoxib.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / toxicity*
  • Carbazoles / toxicity*
  • Colon / drug effects
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / toxicity
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / toxicity
  • Diphenylamine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Diphenylamine / toxicity
  • Dogs / metabolism
  • Female
  • Glycyrrhiza
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects*
  • Lansoprazole / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Phenylacetates / toxicity*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Poland
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Carbazoles
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Phenylacetates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • liquorice decocta
  • Lansoprazole
  • Diphenylamine
  • carprofen
  • robenacoxib