Pupillary size in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Diabet Med. 1989 Dec;6(9):780-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.1989.tb01278.x.


Pupillary adaptation to darkness was studied in 63 children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes using a simple portable pupillometer. Results were compared with those in a group of age-related non-diabetic children and expressed as the ratio of the pupil diameter to the iris diameter (pupil diameter %). In the diabetic patients the pupil diameter % was 61.1 +/- 5.8 (44.4-71.9) % compared with 64.2 +/- 4.1 (53.2-72.6) % in the control subjects (p less than 0.001). Abnormal pupillary adaptation to darkness was found more commonly than abnormal heart rate variation in response to a variety of stimuli in the diabetic patients. Pupillary adaptation to darkness may be useful as an indicator of subclinical autonomic neuropathy in diabetic children.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology*
  • Fructosamine
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Heart Rate
  • Hexosamines / blood
  • Humans
  • Posture
  • Reference Values
  • Reflex, Pupillary*
  • Respiration
  • Valsalva Maneuver


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hexosamines
  • Fructosamine