Introduction: After the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), some HIV-infected patients present a severe inflammation in response to a latent or a previously treated opportunistic pathogen termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Few reports of tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis have been described in association with IRIS.
Methods: A systematic literature review of IRIS in association with leishmaniasis identified 34 reported cases.
Results and discussion: The majority of these occurred in males 4 months following the onset of HAART. The mean CD4 count before HAART was 94 ± 77 cells/mm³ increasing to 5 times the initial value between the onset of HAART and IRIS presentation. Visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis were the most commonly reported clinical manifestations, followed by tegumentary leishmaniasis and uveitis.
Conclusions: Commonly found characteristics included cutaneous involvement, regardless of Leishmania species; appearance of lesions unrelated to time of probable Leishmania infection; rapid recovery of CD4 count following HAART; and rapid progression.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; IRIS; co-infection HIV/Leishmania; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; leishmaniasis.
© The Author(s) 2014.