Background: Platelets (PLTs) in stored PLT concentrates (PLCs) release PLT extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs) induced by senescence and activation, resembling the PLT storage lesion. No comprehensive classification or molecular characterization of senescence-induced PL-EVs exists to understand PL-EV heterogeneity.
Study design and methods: PL-EVs from 5-day-stored PLCs from healthy individuals were isolated and subfractionated by differential centrifugation, filtration, and density gradient ultracentrifugation into five PLT microvesicle (PL-MV) subfractions (Fraction [F]1-F5) and PLT exosomes (PL-EXs). PL-EV size, concentration, and composition were analyzed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, flow cytometry, and lipid and protein mass spectrometry. Protein data were verified by Western blot.
Results: PL-EVs showed overlapping mean particle sizes of 180 to 260 nm, but differed significantly in composition. Less dense, intermediate, and dense PL-MVs enriched specific lipidomic and proteomic markers related to the plasma membrane, intracellular membranes, PLT granules, mitochondria, and PLT activation. α-Synuclein (81% of total) accumulated in F1 and F2, amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein in F3 and F4 (84%), and apolipoprotein (Apo)E (88%) and ApoJ (92%) in F3 to F5. PL-EXs enriched lipid species and proteins, with high abundance of lipid raft, PLT adhesion, and immune response-related markers.
Conclusion: Differential lipid and protein compositions of PL-EVs suggest their unique cellular origins and functions, partly overlapping with PLT granule secretion. Dense PL-MVs might represent autophagic vesicles released during PLT activation and apoptosis and PL-EXs resemble lipid rafts, with a potential role in PLT aggregation and immunity. Segregation of α-synuclein and Aβ precursor protein, ApoE, and ApoJ into less dense and dense PL-MVs, respectively, show their differential carrier role of neurologic disease-related cargo.
© 2014 AABB.