Comprehensive replication of the relationship between myopia-related genes and refractive errors in a large Japanese cohort

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Oct 21;55(11):7343-54. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15105.


Purpose: We investigated the association between refractive error in a Japanese population and myopia-related genes identified in two recent large-scale genome-wide association studies.

Methods: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 51 genes that were reported by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia and/or the 23andMe database were genotyped in 3712 healthy Japanese volunteers from the Nagahama Study using HumanHap610K Quad, HumanOmni2.5M, and/or HumanExome Arrays. To evaluate the association between refractive error and recently identified myopia-related genes, we used three approaches to perform quantitative trait locus analyses of mean refractive error in both eyes of the participants: per-SNP, gene-based top-SNP, and gene-based all-SNP analyses. Association plots of successfully replicated genes also were investigated.

Results: In our per-SNP analysis, eight myopia gene associations were replicated successfully: GJD2, RASGRF1, BICC1, KCNQ5, CD55, CYP26A1, LRRC4C, and B4GALNT2.Seven additional gene associations were replicated in our gene-based analyses: GRIA4, BMP2, QKI, BMP4, SFRP1, SH3GL2, and EHBP1L1. The signal strength of the reported SNPs and their tagging SNPs increased after considering different linkage disequilibrium patterns across ethnicities. Although two previous studies suggested strong associations between PRSS56, LAMA2, TOX, and RDH5 and myopia, we could not replicate these results.

Conclusions: Our results confirmed the significance of the myopia-related genes reported previously and suggested that gene-based replication analyses are more effective than per-SNP analyses. Our comparison with two previous studies suggested that BMP3 SNPs cause myopia primarily in Caucasian populations, while they may exhibit protective effects in Asian populations.

Keywords: Japanese; gene-based replication; genome-wide association study; myopia; refractive error.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • DNA / genetics*
  • DNA Replication
  • Eye Proteins / genetics*
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myopia / epidemiology
  • Myopia / genetics
  • Myopia / metabolism
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Refractive Errors / epidemiology
  • Refractive Errors / genetics*
  • Refractive Errors / metabolism
  • Rural Population


  • Eye Proteins
  • DNA