d-Serine is a physiological activator of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in the nervous system that mediates several NMDAR-mediated processes ranging from normal neurotransmission to neurodegeneration. d-Serine is synthesized from l-serine by serine racemase (SR), a brain-enriched enzyme. However, little is known about the regulation of d-serine synthesis. We now demonstrate that the F-box only protein 22 (FBXO22) interacts with SR and is required for optimal d-serine synthesis in cells. Although FBXO22 is classically associated with the ubiquitin system and is recruited to the Skip1-Cul1-F-box E3 complex, SR interacts preferentially with free FBXO22 species. In vivo ubiquitination and SR half-life determination indicate that FBXO22 does not target SR to the proteasome system. FBXO22 primarily affects SR subcellular localization and seems to increase d-serine synthesis by preventing the association of SR to intracellular membranes. Our data highlight an atypical role of FBXO22 in enhancing d-serine synthesis that is unrelated to its classical effects as a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway.
Keywords: F-box Proteins; FBXO22; Glutamate Receptor; NMDA Receptor; Neurotransmitter; Neurotransmitter Receptor; Serine Racemase; Ubiquitin; Ubiquitylation (Ubiquitination); d-Serine.
© 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.