Asthma represents a growing health, social, and economic issue as it affects a considerable part of the population, adversely affecting patients' quality of life, while its chronic character and severity of symptoms impair family life. It has been estimated that 12% of the population of Poland (4.5 million) suffer from asthma and 16% report wheezes (5.7 million). In order to improve asthma care and patient outcomes, evidence-based recommendations must not only be developed, but also disseminated and implemented at a national and local level, which is key for integration into clinical practice. For these reasons, the Polish Society of Allergology (PSA) has decided to undertake actions, leading to some improvement of the epidemiological situation in Poland. The Polish National Programme of Early Diagnosis and Therapy of Asthma has been developed. This initiative is a response to the demand for medical care improvement in patients with asthma. Its goals include early diagnosis of asthma and improved control in the course of the disease, a reduction in the number of subjects with asthma-associated disability for work, an increased use of anti-inflammatory agents vs. rescue medications, a reduced number of patients with severe, uncontrolled bronchial asthma and prevention of complications of the disease and of adverse effects of applied therapy, an increase in social awareness regarding the bulk of problems associated with asthma, and reduction of the total costs of the care of patients suffering from asthma. Details regarding programme assumptions, goals, target groups, and modes of implementation are described in the document.