Resting heart rate and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause death: the Kailuan study

PLoS One. 2014 Oct 24;9(10):e110985. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110985. eCollection 2014.


Background: Resting heart rate (RHR) predicts both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death in different populations. However, the results of the association between RHR and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are inconsistent, especially for each subtype of CVDs.

Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationship between RHR and CVDs including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke and all-cause death in a general population.

Methods: The Kailuan study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox regression modeling.

Results: We analyzed 92,562 participants (18-98 years old) in the Kailuan Study. CVDs were developed in 1,903 people during follow-ups. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for major traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HRs of the highest quintile group compared with the lowest quintile group of RHR for all-cause CVDs, MI, any stroke, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and all-cause death were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.98-1.07), 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01-1.20), 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97-1.06), 1.02 (95% CI, 0.96-1.07), 1.01 (95% CI, 0.92-1.11) and 1.18, (95% CI, 1.13-1.23), respectively.

Conclusions: The elevated RHR was independently associated with the increased risk for MI and all-cause death, but not for all-cause CVDs, any stroke, ischemic stroke, nor hemorrhagic stroke. This indicates that the elevated RHR might be a risk marker for MI and all-cause death in general populations.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Cause of Death*
  • China
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Young Adult

Grant support

These authors have no support or funding to report.