The increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated neurological disorders (NDs), such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson's disease, have raised concerns about increasing health care and financial burden. Due to the overwhelming growth rate of T2DM and its strong association with NDs, there is an ever-growing and an urgent need to improve the diagnosis and management of the disease. Major hurdles in the management of T2DM comprise of striving for glycemic targets, polypharmacy, patient adherence and clinical inertia. The challenges occurring in the treatment of T2DM are mainly attributed to the complex heterogeneous nature of the disease and its close association with a wide variety of neurological, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. To overcome these challenges, authors propose to focus on the treatment strategies that employ shared pathogenesis and common molecular denominators involved in the aetiology of T2DM and associated NDs. Impaired insulin signalling (as a result of perturbed redox status), insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction are key molecular events that may lead to the pathogenesis of T2DM and associated NDs. However, effective management of these therapeutic strategies requires holistic experimental evidence from animal as well as clinical human studies. Therefore, a shift in the treatment paradigm from single point glycemic control to shared pathogenesis control would be an ideal approach to combat the alarming progression of diabetes and associated NDs. Therapeutic interventions focused on shared molecular pathogenesis, along with effective glycemic control, may provide protection from associated NDs.