Study objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG).
Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms.
Setting: Research laboratory.
Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56).
Measurements and results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0-2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch.
Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth.
Keywords: ORP; Sleep quality; odds ratio product; sleep depth; sleep staging.
© 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.