Long-term invasive follow-up of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold: five-year results of multiple invasive imaging modalities

EuroIntervention. 2016 Jan 22;11(9):996-1003. doi: 10.4244/EIJY14M10_12.


Aims: Invasive imaging modalities have shown restoration of vasomotion, prevention of restenosis and, most importantly, increase in lumen area between six months and two years after first-generation everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS) implantation. Our aim was to assess whether these positive findings were sustained in the long term.

Methods and results: Patients included in the ABSORB cohort A from the Thoraxcenter Rotterdam cohort underwent coronary catheterisation including angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), virtual histology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and vasomotion testing at five years. Eight out of 16 patients underwent catheterisation and scaffold assessment with multiple imaging modalities. A trend towards an increase in minimum luminal diameter was observed between two and five years by angiography (1.95±0.37 mm vs. 2.14±0.38 mm; p=0.09). IVUS data showed an increase in mean lumen area at five years (6.96±1.13 mm2) compared to six months (6.17±0.74 mm2; p=0.06) and two years (6.56±1.16 mm2; p=0.12), primarily due to a persistent reduction in plaque area size between six months and five years (9.17±1.86 mm2 vs. 7.57±1.63 mm2; p=0.03). The necrotic core area was reduced at five years compared to post-procedural results. In OCT, an increase in mean and minimal luminal area was observed. Moreover, no scaffold struts could be identified and a smooth endoluminal lining was observed. The scaffolded coronary segment did not show signs of endothelial dysfunction with acetylcholine testing.

Conclusions: At five years, the Absorb BVS is no longer discernible by any invasive imaging method and endothelial function is restored. Late luminal enlargement persists up to five years of follow-up without adaptive vessel remodelling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absorbable Implants*
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible*
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Disease / diagnosis
  • Coronary Artery Disease / therapy*
  • Coronary Vessels / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Vessels / drug effects*
  • Coronary Vessels / pathology
  • Coronary Vessels / physiopathology
  • Everolimus / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multimodal Imaging* / methods
  • Necrosis
  • Netherlands
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / adverse effects
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / instrumentation*
  • Plaque, Atherosclerotic
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • Vascular Remodeling / drug effects


  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Everolimus