This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess effects of low-level prenatal lead exposure on auditory recognition memory in 2-month-old infants. Infants were divided into four groups according to cord-blood lead concentration: (1) <2.00 μ g/dL, (2) 2.00-2.99 μ g/dL, (3) 3.0-3.7 μ g/dL, and (4) ≥3.7 μ g/dL. The first group showed the normally expected differences in P2, P750, and late slow wave (LSW) amplitudes elicited by mothers' and strangers' voices. These differences were not observed for one or more ERP components in the other groups. Thus, there was electrophysiological evidence of poorer auditory recognition memory at 2 months with cord-blood lead ≥2.00 μ g/dL.