The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology

Nat Commun. 2014 Oct 28;5:5315. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6315.


The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65 Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45 Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / genetics
  • Ascorbic Acid / metabolism
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Plant / genetics
  • Fruit / genetics*
  • Gene Duplication / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes, Plant
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome, Plant / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plant Shoots / genetics
  • Plant Shoots / growth & development
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Species Specificity
  • Stress, Physiological / genetics
  • Synteny / genetics
  • Trees / genetics*
  • Ziziphus / genetics*


  • Ascorbic Acid

Associated data

  • GENBANK/JREP00000000
  • SRA/SRP046073